21. Other patient related history
21.1. Relational Problems
21.1.1. Problems Related to Family Upbringing
188.8.131.52. Parent-Child Relational Problem
184.108.40.206. Sibling Relational Problem
220.127.116.11. Upbringing Away From Parents
18.104.22.168. Child Affected by Parental Relationship Distress
21.1.2. Other Problems Related to Primary Support Group
22.214.171.124. Relationship Distress With Spouse or Intimate Partner
126.96.36.199. Disruption of Family by Separation or Divorce
188.8.131.52. High Expressed Emotion Level Within Family
184.108.40.206. Uncomplicated Bereavement
21.2. Abuse and Neglect
21.2.1. Child Μaltreatment and Neglect Problems
220.127.116.11. Child Physical Abuse
18.104.22.168. Child Sexual Abuse
22.214.171.124. Child Neglect
126.96.36.199. Child Psychological Abuse
21.2.2. Adult Maltreatment and Neglect Problems
188.8.131.52. Spouse or Partner Violence, Physical
184.108.40.206. Spouse or Partner Violence, Sexual
220.127.116.11. Spouse or Partner, Neglect
18.104.22.168. Spouse or Partner Abuse, Psychological
22.214.171.124. Adult Abuse by NonSpouse or NonPartner
21.3. Educational and Occupational Problems
21.3.1. Educational Problems
126.96.36.199. Academic or Educational Problem
21.3.2. Occupational Problems
188.8.131.52. Problem Related to Current Military Deployment
184.108.40.206. Other Problem Related to Employment
21.4. Housing and Economic Problems
220.127.116.11. Housing Problems
18.104.22.168.2. Inadequate Housing
22.214.171.124.3. Discord With Neighbor, Lodger, or Landlord
126.96.36.199.4. Problem Related to Living in a Residential Institution
188.8.131.52. Economic Problems
184.108.40.206.1. Lack of Adequate Food or Safe Drinking Water
220.127.116.11.2. Extreme Poverty
18.104.22.168.3. Low Income
22.214.171.124.4. Insufficient Social Insurance or Welfare Support
126.96.36.199.5. Unspecified Housing or Economic Problem
21.5. Other Problems Related to the Social Environment
21.5.1. Phase of Life Problem
21.5.2. Problem Related to Living Alone
21.5.3. Acculturation Difficulty
21.5.4. Social Exclusion or Rejection
21.5.5. Target of (Perceived) Adverse Discrimination or Persecution
21.5.6. Unspecified Problem Related to Social Environment
21.6. Problems Related to Crime or Interaction With the Legal System
21.6.1. Victim of Crime
21.6.2. Conviction in Civil or Criminal Proceedings Without Imprisonment
21.6.3. Imprisonment or Other Incarceration
21.6.4. Problems Related to Release From Prison
21.6.5. Problems Related to Other Legal Circumstances
21.7. Other Health Service Encounters for Counseling and Medical Advice
21.7.1. Sex Counseling
21.7.2. Other Counseling or Consultation
21.8. Problems Related to Other Psychosocial, Personal, and Environmental Circumstances
21.8.1. Religious or Spiritual Problem
21.8.2. Problems Related to Unwanted Pregnancy
21.8.3. Problems Related to Multiparity
21.8.4. Discord With Social Service Provider, Including ProbationOfficer, Case Manager,or Social Services Worker
21.8.5. Victim of Terrorism or Torture
21.8.6. Exposure to Disaster, War, or Other Hostilities
21.8.7. Other Problem Related to Psychological Circumstances
21.9. Other Circumstances of Personal History
21.9.1. Other Personal History of Psychological Trauma Personal History of Self-Harm
21.9.2. Personal History of Military Deployment
21.9.3. Other Personal Risk Factors
21.9.4. Problem Related to Lifestyle
21.9.5. Adult Antisocial Behavior
21.9.6. Child or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
21.10. Problems Related to Access to Medical and Other Health Care
21.10.1. Unavailability or Inaccessibility of Health Care Facilities
21.10.2. Unavailability or Inaccessibility of Other Helping Agencies
21.11. Nonadherence to Medical Treatment
21.11.1. Nonadherence to Medical Treatment
21.11.2. Overweight or Obesity
21.11.4. Wandering Associated With a Mental Disorder Borderline Intellectual Functioning
21.11.5. Borderline Intellectual Functioning
T h is d i s c u s s io n covers other conditions and problems that may be a focus of clinical
attention or that may otherwise affect the diagnosis, course, prognosis, or treatment of
a patient's mental disorder. These conditions are presented with their corresponding
codes from ICD-9-CM (usually V codes) and ICD-IO-CM (usually Z codes). A condition
or problem in this chapter may be coded if it is a reason for the current visit or helps to
explain the need for a test, procedure, or treatment. Conditions and problems in this chapter
may also be included in the medical record as useful information on circumstances that
may affect the patient's care, regardless of their relevance to the current visit.
The conditions and problems listed in this chapter are not mental disorders. Their inclusion
in DSM-5 is meant to draw attention to the scope of additional issues that may be
encountered in routine clinical practice and to provide a systematic listing that may be
useful to clinicians in documenting these issues.
Key relationships, especially intimate adult partner relationships and parent/caregiverchild relationships, have a significant impact on the health of the individuals in these relationships. These relationships can be health promoting and protective, neutral, or detrimental to health outcomes. In the extreme, these close relationships can be associated with maltreatment or neglect, which has significant medical and psychological consequences for the affected individual. A relational problem may come to clinical attention either as the reason that the individual seeks health care or as a problem that affects the course, prognosis, or treatment of the individual's mental or other medical disorder.
For this category, the term parent is used to refer to one of the child's primary caregivers, who may be a biological, adoptive, or foster parent or may be another relative (such as a grandparent) who fulfills a parental role for the child. This category should be used when the main focus of clinical attention is to address the quality of the parent-child relationship or when the quality of the parent-child relationship is affecting the course, prognosis, or treatment of a mental or other medical disorder. Typically, the parent-child relational problem is associated with impaired functioning in behavioral, cognitive, or affective domains. Examples of behavioral problems include inadequate parental control, supervision, and involvement with the child; parental overprotection; excessive parental pressure; arguments that escalate to threats of physical violence; and avoidance without resolution of problems. Cognitive problems may include negative attributions of the other's intentions, hostility toward or scapegoating of the other, and unwarranted feelings of estrangement. Affective problems may include feelings of sadness, apathy, or anger about the other individual in the relationship. Clinicians should take into account the developmental needs of the child and the cultural context.
This category should be used when the focus of clinical attention is a pattern of interaction among siblings that is associated with significant impairment in individual or family functioning or with development of symptoms in one or more of the siblings, or when a sibling relational problem is affecting the course, prognosis, or treatment of a sibling's mental or other medical disorder. This category can be used for either children or adults if the focus is on the sibling relationship. Siblings in this context include full, half-, step-, foster, and adopted siblings.
This category should be used when the main focus of clinical attention pertains to issues regarding a child being raised away from the parents or when this separate upbringing affects the course, prognosis, or treatment of a mental or other medical disorder. The child could be one who is under state custody and placed in kin care or foster care. The child could also be one who is living in a nonparental relative's home, or with friends, but whose out-of-home placement is not mandated or sanctioned by the courts. Problems related to a child living in a group home or orphanage are also included. This category excludes issues related to V60.6 (Z59.3) children in boarding schools.
This category should be used when the focus of clinical attention is the negative effects of parental relationship discord (e.g., high levels of conflict, distress, or disparagement) on a child in the family, including effects on the child's mental or other medical disorders.
This category should be used when the major focus of the clinical contact is to address the quality of the intimate (spouse or partner) relationship or when the quality of that relationship is affecting the course, prognosis, or treatment of a mental or other medical disorder. Partners can be of the same or different genders. Typically, the relationship distress is associated with impaired functioning in behavioral, cognitive, or affective domains. Examples of behavioral problems include conflict resolution difficulty, withdrawal, and overinvolvement. Cognitive problems can manifest as chronic negative attributions of the other's intentions or dismissals of the partner's positive behaviors. Affective problems would include chronic sadness, apathy, and/or anger about the other partner. Note: This category excludes clinical encounters for V61.1x (Z69.1x) mental health services for spousal or partner abuse problems and V65.49 (Z70.9) sex counseling.
This category should be used when partners in an intimate adult couple are living apart due to relationship problems or are in the process of divorce.
Expressed emotion is a construct used as a qualitative measure of the "amount" of emotion— in particular, hostility, emotional overinvolvement, and criticism directed toward a family member who is an identified patient—displayed in the family environment. This category should be used when a family's high level of expressed emotion is the focus of clinical attention or is affecting the course, prognosis, or treatment of a family member's mental or other medical disorder.
This category can be used when the focus of clinical attention is a normal reaction to the death of a loved one. As part of their reaction to such a loss, some grieving individuals present with symptoms characteristic of a major depressive episode—for example, feelings of sadness and associated symptoms such as insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss. The berea>(ed individual typically regards the depressed mood as "normal," although the individual may seek professional help for relief of associated symptoms such as insomnia or anorexia. The duration and expression of "normal" bereavement vary considerably among different cultural groups. Further guidance in distinguishing grief from a major depressive episode is provided in the criteria for major depressive episode.
Maltreatment by a family member (e.g., caregiver, intimate adult partner) or by a nonrelative
can be the area of current clinical focus, or such maltreatment can be an important
factor in the assessment and treatment of patients with mental or other medical disorders.
Because of the legal implications of abuse and neglect, care should be used in assessing
these conditions and assigning these codes. Having a past history of abuse or neglect can
influence diagnosis and treatment response in a number of mental disorders, and may also
be noted along with the diagnosis.
For the following categories, in addition to listings of the confirmed or suspected event of abuse or neglect, other codes are provided for use if the current clinical encounter is to provide mental health services to either the victim or the perpetrator of the abuse or neglect. A separate code is also provided for designating a past history of abuse or neglect. Coding Note for ICD-IO-CM Abuse and Neglect Conditions
For T codes only, the 7th character should be coded as follows:
A (initial encounter)—Use while the patient is receiving active treatment for the condition (e.g., surgical treatment, emergency department encounter, evaluation and treatment by a new clinician); or D (subsequent encounter)—Use for encounters after the patient has received active treatment for the condition and when he or she is receiving routine care for the condition during the healing or recovery phase (e.g., cast change or removal, removal of external or internal fixation device, medication adjustment, other aftercare and follow-up visits).
Child physical abuse is nonaccidental physical injury to a child—^ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death—occurring as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or any other method that is inflicted by a parent, caregiver, or other individual who has responsibility for the child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of whether the caregiver intended to hurt the child. Physical discipline, such as spanking or paddling, is not considered abuse as long as it is reasonable and causes no bodily injury to the child. Child Physical Abuse, Confirmed
Child sexual abuse encompasses any sexual act involving a child that is intended to provide sexual gratification to a parent, caregiver, or other individual who has responsibility for the child. Sexual abuse includes activities such as fondling a child's genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, and indecent exposure. Sexual abuse also includes noncontact exploitation of a child by a parent or caregiver—for example, forcing, tricking, enticing, threatening, or pressuring a child to participate in acts for the sexual gratification of others, without direct physical contact between child and abuser.
Child neglect is defined as any confirmed or suspected egregious act or omission by a child's parent or other caregiver that deprives the child of basic age-appropriate needs and thereby results, or has reasonable potential to result, in physical or psychological harm to the child. Child neglect encompasses abandonment; lack of appropriate supervision; failure to attend to necessary emotional or psychological needs; and failure to provide necessary education, medical care, nourishment, shelter, and/or clothing.
Child psychological abuse is nonaccidental verbal or symbolic acts by a child's parent or caregiver that result, or have reasonable potential to result, in significant psychological harm to the child. (Physical and sexual abusive acts are not included in this category.) Examples of psychological abuse of a child include berating, disparaging, or humiliating the child; threatening the child; harming/abandoning—or indicating that the alleged offender will harm/abandon—people or things that the child cares about; confining the child (as by tying a child's arms or legs together or binding a child to furruture or another object, or confining a child to a small enclosed area [e.g., a closet]); egregious scapegoating of the child; coercing the child to inflict pain on himself or herself; and disciplining the child excessively (i.e., at an extremely high frequency or duration, even if not at a level of physical abuse) through physical or nonphysical means.
This category should be used when nonaccidental acts of physical force that result, or have reasonable potential to result, in physical harm to an intimate partner or that evoke significant fear in the partner have occurred during the past year. Nonaccidental acts of physical force include shoving, slapping, hair pulling, pinching, restraining, shaking, throwing, biting, kicking, hitting with the fist or an object, burning, poisoning, applying force to the throat, cutting off the air supply, holding the head under water, and using a weapon. Acts for the purpose of physically protecting oneself or one's partner are excluded.
This category should be used when forced or coerced sexual acts with an intimate partner have occurred during the past year. Sexual violence may involve the use of physical force or psychological coercion to compel the partner to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed. Also included in this category are sexual acts with an intimate partner who is unable to consent.
Partner neglect is any egregious act or omission in the past year by one partner that deprives a dependent partner of basic needs and thereby results, or has reasonable potential to result, in physical or psychological harm to the dependent partner. This category is used in the context of relationships in which one partner is extremely dependent on the other partner for care or for assistance in navigating ordinary daily activities—for example, a partner who is incapable of self-care owing to substantial physical, psychological/intellectual, or cultural limitations (e.g., inability to communicate with others and manage everyday activities due to living in a foreign culture).
Partner psychological abuse encompasses nonaccidental verbal or symbolic acts by one partner that result, or have reasonable potential to result, in significant harm to the other partner. This category should be used when such psychological abuse has occurred during the past year. Acts of psychological abuse include berating or humiliating the victim; interrogating the victim; restricting tiie victim's ability to come and go freely; obstructing the victim's access to assistance (e.g., law enforcement; legal, protective, or medical resources); threatening the victim with physical harm or sexual assault; harming, or threatening to harm, people or things that the victim cares about; unwarranted restriction of the victim's access to or use of economic resources; isolating the victim from family, friends, or social support resources; stalking the victim; and trying to make the victim think that he or she is crazy.
These categories should be used when an adult has been abused by another adult who is not an intimate partner. Such maltreatment may involve acts of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Examples of adult abuse include nonaccidental acts of physical force (e.g., pushing/shoving, scratching, slapping, throwing something that could hurt, punching, biting) that have resulted—or have reasonable potential to result—in physical harm or have caused significant fear; forced or coerced sexual acts; and verbal or symbolic acts with the potential to cause psychological harm (e.g., berating or humiliating the person; interrogating the person; restricting the person's ability to come and go freely; obstructing the person's access to assistance; threatening the person; harming or threatening to harm people or things that the person cares about; restricting the person's access to or use of economic resources; isolating the person from family, friends, or social support resources; stalking the person; trying to make the person think that he or she is crazy). Acts for the purpose of physically protecting oneself or the other person are excluded.
This category should be used when an academic or educational problem is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. Problems to be considered include illiteracy or low-level literacy; lack of access to schooling owing to unavailability or unattainability; problems with academic performance (e.g., failing school examinations, receiving failing marks or grades) or underachievement (below what would be expected given the individual's intellectual capacity); discord with teachers, school staff, or other students; and any other problems related to education and/ or literacy.
This category should be used when an occupational problem directly related to an individual's military deployment status is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. Psychological reactions to deployment are not included in this category; such reactions would be better captured as an adjustment disorder or another mental disorder.
This category should be used when an occupational problem is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis. Areas to be considered include problems with employment or in the work environment, including unemployment; recent change of job; threat of job loss; job dissatisfaction; stressful work schedule; uncertainty about career choices; sexual harassment on the job; other discord with boss, supervisor, co-workers, or others in the work environment; uncongenial or hostile work environments; other psychosocial stressors related to work; and any other problems related to employment and/or occupation.
This category should be used when lack of a regular dwelling or living quarters has an impact on an individual's treatment or prognosis. An individual is considered to be homeless if his or her primary nighttime residence is a homeless shelter, a warming shelter, a domestic violence shelter, a public space (e.g., tunnel, transportation station, mall), a building not intended for residential use (e.g., abandoned structure, unused factory), a cardboard box or cave, or some other ad hoc housing situation.
This category should be used when lack of adequate housing has an impact on an individual's treatment or prognosis. Examples of inadequate housing conditions include lack of heat (in cold temperatures) or electricity, infestation by insects or rodents, inadequate plumbing and toilet facilities, overcrowding, lack of adequate sleeping space, and excessive noise. It is important to consider cultural norms before assigning this category.
This category should be used when discord with neighbors, lodgers, or a landlord is a focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis.
This category should be used when a problem (or problems) related to living in a residential institution is a focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis. Psychological reactions to a change in living situation are not included in this category; such reactions would be better captured as an adjustment disorder.
This category should be used for individuals who meet eligibility criteria for social or welfare support but are not receiving such support, who receive support that is insufficient to address their needs, or who otherwise lack access to needed insurance or support programs. Examples include inability to qualify for welfare support owing to lack of proper documentation or evidence of address, inability to obtain adequate health insurance because of age or a preexisting condition, and denial of support owing to excessively stringent income or other requirements.
This category should be used when there is a problem related to housing or economic circumstances other than as specified above.
This category should be used when a problem adjusting to a life-cycle transition (a particular developmental phase) is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis. Examples of such transitions include entering or completing school, leaving parental control, getting married, starting a new career, becoming a parent, adjusting to an "empty nest" after children leave home, and retiring.
This category should be used when a problem associated with living alone is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis. Examples of such problems include chronic feelings of loneliness, isolation, and lack of structure in carrying out activities of daily living (e.g., irregular meal and sleep schedules, inconsistent performance of home maintenance chores).
This category should be used when difficulty in adjusting to a new culture (e.g., following migration) is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis.
This category should be used when there is an imbalance of social power such that there is recurrent social exclusion or rejection by others. Examples of social rejection include bullying, teasing, and intimidation by others; being targeted by others for verbal abuse and humiliation; and being purposefully excluded from the activities of peers, workmates, or others in one's social environment.
This category should be used when there is perceived or experienced discrimination against or persecution of the individual based on his or her membership (or perceived membership) in a specific category. Typically, such categories include gender or gender identity, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, country of origin, political beliefs, disability status, caste, social status, weight, and physical appearance.
This category should be used when there is a problem related to the individual's social environment other than as specified above.
This category should be used when the individual seeks counseling related to sex education, sexual behavior, sexual orientation, sexual attitudes (embarrassment, timidity), others' sexual behavior or orientation (e.g., spouse, partner, child), sexual enjoyment, or any other sex-related issue.
This category should be used when counseling is provided or advice/consultation is sought for a problem that is not specified above or elsewhere in this chapter. Examples include spiritual or religious counseling, dietary counseling, and counseling on nicotine use.
This category can be used when the focus of clinical attention is a religious or spiritual problem. Examples include distressing experiences that involve loss or questioning of faith, problems associated with conversion to a new faith, or questioning of spiritual values that may not necessarily be related to an organized church or religious institution.
This category should be used when a lifestyle problem is a specific focus of treatment or directly affects the course, prognosis, or treatment of a mental or other medical disorder. Examples of lifestyle problems include lack of physical exercise, inappropriate diet, high-risk sexual behavior, and poor sleep hygiene. A problem that is attributable to a symptom of a mental disorder should not be coded unless that problem is a specific focus of treatment or directly affects the course, prognosis, or treatment of the individual. In such cases, both the mental disorder and the lifestyle problem should be coded.
This category can be used when the focus of clinical attention is adult antisocial behavior that is not due to a mental disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder). Examples include the behavior of some professional thieves, racketeers, or dealers in illegal substances.
This category can be used when the focus of clinical attention is antisocial behavior in a child or adolescent that is not due to a mental disorder (e.g., intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder). Examples include isolated antisocial acts by children or adolescents (not a pattern of antisocial behavior).
This category can be used when the focus of clinical attention is nonadherence to an important aspect of treatment for a mental disorder or another medical condition. Reasons for such nonadherence may include discomfort resulting from treatment (e.g., medication side effects), expense of treatment, personal value judgments or religious or cultural beliefs about the proposed treatment, age-related debility, and the presence of a mental disorder (e.g., schizophrenia, personality disorder). This category should be used only when the problem is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention and does not meet diagnostic criteria for psychological factors affecting other medical conditions.
This category may be used when overweight or obesity is a focus of clinical attention.
The essential feature of malingering is the intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated
physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives such as
avoiding military duty, avoiding work, obtaining financial compensation, evading criminal
prosecution, or obtaining drugs. Under some circumstances, malingering may represent
adaptive behavior—for example, feigning illness while a captive of the enemy during
wartime. Malingering should be strongly suspected if any combination of the following is
1. Medicolegal context of presentation (e.g., the individual is referred by an attorney to the clinician for examination, or the individual self-refers while litigation or criminal charges are pending).
2. Marked discrepancy between the individual's claimed stress or disability and the objective findings and observations.
3. Lack of cooperation during the diagnostic evaluation and in complying with the prescribed treatment regimen.
4. The presence of antisocial personality disorder.
Malingering differs from factitious disorder in that the motivation for the symptom production in malingering is an external incentive, whereas in factitious disorder external incentives are absent. Malingering is differentiated from conversion disorder and somatic symptom-related mental disorders by the intentional production of symptoms and by the obvious external incentives associated with it. Definite evidence of feigning (such as clear evidence that loss of function is present during the examination but not at home) would suggest a diagnosis of factitious disorder if the individual's apparent aim is to assume the sick role, or malingering if it is to obtain an incentive, such as money.
This category is used for individuals with a mental disorder whose desire to walk about leads to significant clinical management or safety concerns. For example, individuals with major neurocognitive or neurodevelopmental disorders may experience a restless urge to wander that places them at risk for falls and causes them to leave supervised settings without needed accompaniment. This category excludes individuals whose intent is to escape an unwanted housing situation (e.g., children who are running away from home, patients who no longer wish to remain in the hospital) or those who walk or pace as a result of medication- induced akathisia. Coding note: First code associated mental disorder (e.g., major neurocognitive disorder, autism spectrum disorder), then code V40.31 (Z91.83) wandering associated with [specific mental disorder].
This category can be used when an individual's borderline intellectual functioning is the focus of clinical attention or has an impact on the individual's treatment or prognosis. Differentiating borderline intellectual functioning and mild intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) requires careful assessment of intellectual and adaptive functions and their discrepancies, particularly in the presence of co-occurring mental disorders that may affect patient compliance with standardized testing procedures (e.g., schizophrenia or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with severe impulsivity).